Brain Infections Global has been providing links to resources on the neurological aspects of COVID-19 over the course of the pandemic. We are now supporting the JNNP The Neurology and Neuropsychiatry of COVID-19 blog.

This page will no longer be regularly updated, however the below links to resources will remain active. Last updated April 2021. 

Through the COVID-Neuro Network we are also providing access to case record forms and standardised case definitions.

  1. Neurological disorders associated with COVID-19 (peer reviewed articles)

  2. Neurological disorders associated with COVID-19 (articles awaiting peer review)

  3. Other useful COVID-19 resources

  4. Other organisation's COVID-19 neurology websites

  5. Neurological disorders associated with other coronaviruses

  6. Neurological disorders associated with other respiratory viruses 


Neurological disorders associated with COVID-19 (peer reviewed articles)

How COVID-19 Affects the Brain. Boldrini M, et al. JAMA psychiatry. 2021.

6-month neurological and psychiatric outcomes in 236 379 survivors of COVID-19: a retrospective cohort study using electronic health records. Taquet M, et al. The Lancet Psychiatry. 2021.

Neurologic Involvement in Children and Adolescents Hospitalized in the United States for COVID-19 or Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome. LaRovere KL, et al. JAMA neurology. 2021.

Isolated bulbar palsy after SARS-CoV-2 infection. Todisco M, et al. The Lancet Neurology. 2021;20(3):169-70.

Short-term Neuropsychiatric Outcomes and Quality of Life in COVID-19 Survivors. Mendez R, et al. Journal of Internal Medicine. 2021.

Association of Psychiatric Disorders With Mortality Among Patients With COVID-19. Nemani K, et al. JAMA psychiatry. 2021.

Respiratory and Psychophysical Sequelae Among Patients With COVID-19 Four Months After Hospital Discharge. Bellan M, et al. JAMA Network Open. 2021;4(1):e2036142.

Prevalence and risk factors for delirium in critically ill patients with COVID-19 (COVID-D): a multicentre cohort study. Pun BT, et al. The Lancet Respiratory Medicine. 2021.

Neurologic Syndromes Predict Higher In-Hospital Mortality in COVID-19. Eskandar EN, et al. Neurology. 2020.

Microvascular Injury in the Brains of Patients with Covid-19. Lee MH, et al. New England Journal of Medicine. 2020.

COVID-19 vaccine and Guillain-Barré syndrome: let's not leap to associations. Lunn MP, et al. Brain: a journal of neurology. 2020.

Epidemiological and cohort study finds no association between COVID-19 and Guillain-Barré syndrome. Keddie S, et al. Brain: a journal of neurology. 2020.

Neuroimaging manifestations in children with SARS-CoV-2 infection: a multinational, multicentre collaborative study. Lindan CE, et al. The Lancet Child & Adolescent Health. 2020.

Arteritis and Large Vessel Occlusive Strokes in Children Following COVID-19 Infection. Appavu B, et al. Pediatrics. 2020.

Olfactory transmucosal SARS-CoV-2 invasion as a port of central nervous system entry in individuals with COVID-19. Meinhardt J, et al. Nature Neuroscience. 2020.

SARS-CoV-2 and the risk of Parkinson's disease: facts and fantasy. Merello M, et al. The Lancet Neurology. 2020.

Bidirectional associations between COVID-19 and psychiatric disorder: retrospective cohort studies of 62,354 COVID-19 cases in the USA. Taquet M, et al. Lancet Psychiatry. 2020.

Characteristics and outcomes of COVID-19-associated stroke: a UK multicentre case-control study. Perry RJ, et al. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry. 2020.

COVID-19 associated arterial ischaemic stroke and multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children: a case report. Tiwari L, et al. The Lancet Child & Adolescent Health. 2020.

Sudden irreversible hearing loss post COVID-19. Koumpa FS, et al. BMJ Case Reports. 2020;13(11):e238419.

Cerebrospinal fluid findings in COVID-19 indicate autoimmunity. Lucchese G. The Lancet Microbe. 2020;1(6):e242.

Do cross-reactive antibodies cause neuropathology in COVID-19? Kreye J, et al. Nature Reviews Immunology. 2020.

Catch me if you can: SARS-CoV-2 detection in brains of deceased patients with COVID-19. Frank S. The Lancet Neurology. 2020.

Neuropathology of patients with COVID-19 in Germany: a post-mortem case series. Matschke J, et al. The Lancet Neurology. 2020.

A case of probable Parkinson's disease after SARS-CoV-2 infection. Cohen ME, et al. The Lancet Neurology. 2020;19(10):804-5.

Thrombotic and haemorrhagic complications in critically ill patients with COVID-19: a multicentre observational study. Shah A, et al. Critical Care. 2020;24(1).

Two patients with acute meningo‐encephalitis concomitant to SARS‐CoV‐2 infection. Bernard‐Valnet R, et al. European Journal of Neurology. 2020.

Clinical characteristics and outcomes of inpatients with neurologic disease and COVID-19 in Brescia, Lombardy, Italy. Benussi A et al. Neurology. 2020.

Acute cerebrovascular disease following COVID-19: a single center, retrospective, observational study. Li Y, et al. Stroke and Vascular Neurology. 2020.

Correlates of critical illness-related encephalopathy predominate postmortem COVID-19 neuropathology. Deigendesch N, et al. Acta Neuropathologica. 2020;26:1-4.

Acute Cerebrovascular Events in Hospitalized COVID-19 Patients. Rothstein A, et al. Stroke. 2020.

Cerebral Micro-Structural Changes in COVID-19 Patients–An MRI-based 3-month Follow-up Study. Lu Y, et al. EClinicalMedicine. 2020.

Risk of stroke in hospitalized SARS-CoV-2 infected patients: A multinational study. Shahjouei S, et al. EBioMedicine. 2020;59:102939.

COVID-19 and selective vulnerability to Parkinson's disease. Pavel A, et al. The Lancet Neurology. 2020;19(9):719.

COVID-19 related stroke in young individuals. Fifi JT, et al. The Lancet Neurology. 2020;19(9):713-715.

Myasthenia Gravis Associated With SARS-CoV-2 Infection. Restivo DA, et al. Annals of Internal Medicine. 2020.

Emergent Large Vessel Occlusion Stroke During New York City’s COVID-19 Outbreak: Clinical Characteristics and Paraclinical Findings. Majidi S, et al. Stroke. 2020.

Cerebral Microbleeds and Leukoencephalopathy in Critically Ill Patients With COVID-19. Agarwal S, et al. Stroke. 2020.

Association of Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) With Large Vessel Occlusion Strokes: A Case-Control Study. Kihira S, et al.  American Journal of Roentgenology. 2020;29:1-6.

Neurological Associations of COVID-19. Ellul M, et al. The Lancet Neurology. 2020.

New insights into the neurological effects of COVID-19. Wood H. Nature Reviews. Neurology. 2020.

Neurological and neuropsychiatric complications of COVID-19 in 153 patients: a UK-wide surveillance study. Varatharaj A, et al. The Lancet Psychiatry. 2020.

Early postmortem brain MRI findings in COVID-19 non-survivors. Coolen T, et al. Neurology. 2020.

Guillain-Barré syndrome following COVID-19: a newly emerging post-infectious complication. Webb S, et al. BMJ Case Reports. 2020;13(6).

Brain MRI Findings in Severe COVID-19: A Retrospective Observational Study. Kremer S, et al. Radiology. 2020.

Clinical manifestations and evidence of neurological involvement in 2019 novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Wang L, et al. Journal of Neurology. 2020.

Neuropathological Features of Covid-19. Solomon IH, et al. New England Journal of Medicine. 2020.

Guillain-Barré syndrome: The first documented COVID-19–triggered autoimmune neurologic disease. Dalakas MC. Neurology-Neuroimmunology Neuroinflammation. 2020;7(5).

Early evidence of pronounced brain involvement in fatal COVID-19 outcomesvon Weyhern CH, et al. The Lancet. 2020.

Risk of COVID-19 infection in MS and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders. Fan M, et al. Neurology-Neuroimmunology Neuroinflammation. 2020;7(5).

COVID‐19 polyradiculitis in 24 patients without SARS‐CoV‐2 in the cerebro‐spinal fluid. Finsterer J, et al. Journal of Medical Virology. 2020.

Thrombosis in COVID-19: clinical outcomes, biochemical and pathological changes, and treatments. Ferner RE, et al. Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine. 2020.

Thrombotic and hemorrhagic events in critically ill COVID-19 patients: a French monocenter retrospective study. Fraissé M, et al. Critical Care. 2020;24(1):1-4.

Thrombosis risk associated with COVID-19 infection. A scoping review. Al-Ani F, et al. Thrombosis Research. 2020.

Neuropathogenesis and Neurologic Manifestations of the Coronaviruses in the Age of Coronavirus Disease 2019: A Review. Zubair AS, et al. JAMA Neurology. 2020.

Macrothrombosis and stroke in patients with mild Covid‐19 infection. Fara MG, et al. Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis. 2020.

Acute Symptomatic Seizures in Critically Ill Patients with COVID-19: Is There an Association? Hepburn M, et al. Neurocritical care. 2020.

Neuropathology of COVID-19: a spectrum of vascular and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM)-like pathology. Reichard RR, et al. Acta Neuropathologica. 2020.

COVID-19 related neuroimaging findings: A signal of thromboembolic complications and a strong prognostic marker of poor patient outcome. Jain R, et al. Journal of the Neurological Sciences. 2020.

Prolonged Confusional state as first manifestation of COVID‐19. Butt I, et al. Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology. 2020.

COVID-19-associated meningoencephalitis complicated with intracranial hemorrhage: a case report. Al-olama M, et al. Acta Neurochirurgica. 2020.

Stroke in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection: case series. Morassi M, et al. Journal of Neurology. 2020.

Miller Fisher Syndrome and polyneuritis cranialis in COVID-19. Gutiérrez-Ortiz C, et al. Neurology. 2020.

Meningoencephalitis without respiratory failure in a young female patient with COVID-19 infection in Downtown Los Angeles, early April 2020. Duong L, et al. Brain, behavior, and immunity. 2020.

Steroid-responsive encephalitis in Covid-19 disease. Pilotto A, et al. Annals of Neurology. 2020.

Focal status epilepticus as unique clinical feature of COVID-19: A case report. Vollono C, et al. Seizure. 2020.

Impact of Cerebrovascular and Cardiovascular Diseases on Mortality And Severity of COVID-19 – Systematic Review, Meta-analysis, and Meta-regression. Pranata R, et al. Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases. 2020

EEG findings in acutely ill patients investigated for SARS‐CoV2/COVID‐19: a small case series preliminary report. Galanopoulou AS, et al. Epilepsia. 2020.

Scoping review of prevalence of neurologic comorbidities in patients hospitalized for COVID-19. Herman C, et al. Neurology. 2020.

Arterial thromboembolic complications in COVID‐19 in low risk patients despite prophylaxis. Griffin DO, et al. British Journal of Haematology. 2020.

Management of acute ischemic stroke in patients with COVID-19 infection: Report of an international panel. Qureshi AI, et al. International Journal of Stroke. 2020.

COVID-19 Presenting with Seizures. Sohal S, et al. IDCases. 2020.

COVID-19 presenting as stroke. Avula A, et al. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity. 2020.

COVID-19 presenting with ophthalmoparesis from cranial nerve palsy. Dinkin M, et al. Neurology. 2020.

Status of SARS-CoV-2 in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with COVID-19 and stroke. Al Saiegh F, et al. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry. 2020.

Emergency Room Neurology in times of COVID‐19: Malignant Ischemic Stroke and SARS‐COV2 Infection. González‐Pinto T, et al. European Journal of Neurology. 2020.

Large-Vessel Stroke as a Presenting Feature of Covid-19 in the Young. Oxley TJ, et al. New England Journal of Medicine. 2020.

Guillain-Barré syndrome related to COVID-19 infection. Alberti P et al. Neurology Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation. 2020.

Self-reported olfactory loss associates with outpatient clinical course in Covid-19. Yan CH, et al. International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology. 2020.

Neurological Insights of COVID-19 Pandemic. Das G, et al. ACS Chemical Neuroscience. 2020.

Central Nervous System Involvement by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus ‐2 (SARS‐CoV‐2). Paniz‐Mondolfi A, et al. Journal of Medical Virology. 2020.

Causes of hypogeusia/hyposmia in SARS‐CoV2 infected patients. Finsterer, et al. Journal of Medical Virology. 2020.

Features of anosmia in COVID-19. Klopfenstein T, et al. Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses. 2020.

Guillain–Barré Syndrome Associated with SARS-CoV-2. Toscano, et al. New England Journal of Medicine. 2020.

Smell and taste dysfunction in patients with COVID-19. Xydakis MS, et al. The Lancet Infectious Diseases. 2020.

Concomitant neurological symptoms observed in a patient diagnosed with coronavirus disease 2019. Yin R, et al. Journal of Medical Virology. 2020.

COVID-19 and neuromuscular disorders. Guidon AC, et al. Neurology. 2020.

Central nervous system manifestations of COVID-19: A systematic review. Asadi-Pooya AA, et al. Journal of the Neurological Sciences. 2020.

Are we facing a crashing wave of neuropsychiatric sequelae of COVID-19? Neuropsychiatric symptoms and potential immunologic mechanisms. Troyer EA, et al. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity. 2020.

Neurologic Features in Severe SARS-CoV-2 InfectionHelms J, et al. New England Journal of Medicine. 2020.

A first Case of Meningitis/Encephalitis associated with SARS-Coronavirus-2. Moriguchi T, et al. International Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2020.

Coagulopathy and Antiphospholipid Antibodies in Patients with Covid-19. Zhang Y, et al. New England Journal of Medicine. 2020.

Neurological Complications of Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19): Encephalopathy. Filatov A, et al. Cureus. 2020;12(3):e7352.

Neurologic Manifestations of Hospitalized Patients With Coronavirus Disease 2019 in Wuhan, China. Mao L, et al. JAMA neurology. 2020.

Encephalitis as a clinical manifestation of COVID-19Ye M, et al. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity. 2020.

Respiratory failure alone does not suggest central nervous system invasion by SARS‐CoV‐2. Turtle L,et al. Journal of Medical Virology. 2020.

The neuroinvasive potential of SARS-CoV2 may play a role in the respiratory failure of COVID-19 patients. Li YC, et al. Journal of medical virology. 2020.

Neurologic complications of coronavirus infections. Nath A. Neurology. 2020.

COVID-19–associated Acute Hemorrhagic Necrotizing Encephalopathy: CT and MRI. Poyiadji N, et al. Radiology. 2020.

Nervous system involvement after infection with COVID-19 and other coronavirusesWu Y, et al. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity. 2020.

Guillain-Barré syndrome associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection: causality or coincidence? Zhao H, et al. The Lancet Neurology. 2020;19(5):383-384.

Spectrum of neuropsychiatric manifestations in COVID-19. Nalleballe K, et al. Elsevier. 2020.

Neurological disorders associated with COVID-19 (articles awaiting peer review)

Physical, cognitive and mental health impacts of COVID-19 following hospitalisation–a multi-centre prospective cohort study. Evans RA, et al. 2021.

Self-reported smell and taste recovery in COVID-19 patients: a one-year prospective study. Boscolo-Rizzo P, et al. 2021.

COVID-19 is associated with multiple sclerosis exacerbations that are prevented by disease modifying therapies. Garjani A, et al. 2021.

Multinational Prevalence of Neurological Phenotypes in Patients Hospitalized with COVID-19. Le TT, et al. 2021.

Six-month Neurological and Psychiatric Outcomes in 236,379 Survivors of COVID-19. Taquet M, et al.

Cognitive deficits in people who have recovered from COVID-19 relative to controls: An N= 84,285 online study. Hampshire A, et al.

Medium-term effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection on multiple vital organs, exercise capacity, cognition, quality of life and mental health, post-hospital discharge. Raman B, et al.

SARS-CoV-2 infects brain astrocytes of COVID-19 patients and impairs neuronal viability. Crunfli F, et al.

Sequential infection with influenza A virus followed by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) leads to more severe disease and encephalitis in a mouse model of COVID-19. Clark J, et al.

Meningoencephalitis associated with COVID-19: A systematic review. Mondal R, et al.

Delirium is a presenting symptom of COVID-19 in frail, older adults: a cohort study of 322 hospitalised and 535 community-based older adults. Zazzara MB, et al. 

The hypothalamus as a hub for putative SARS-CoV-2 brain infection. Nampoothiri S, et al.

Olfactory transmucosal SARS-CoV-2 invasion as port of Central Nervous System entry in COVID-19 patients. Meinhardt J, et al.

Neurological complications in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection: a systematic review. Munhoz RP, et al.

Continuous Electroencephalography (cEEG) Characteristics and Acute Symptomatic Seizures in COVID-19 Patients. Louis S, et al.

Risk of Ischemic Stroke in Patients with Covid-19 versus Patients with Influenza. Merkler AE, et al. 

Acute myelitis after SARS-CoV-2 infection: a case report. Zhao K, et al.

COVID-19-Associated Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis: A Case Report. Zhang T, et al.

Coincidence of COVID-19 epidemic and olfactory dysfunction outbreak. Bagheri SHR, et al.

Other useful COVID-19 resources

Webinar: Neurological disorders associated with COVID-19. Brain Infections Global, 4th May 2020.

COVID-19 Epidemiology, virology, clinical features, diagnosis, and prevention. UpToDate.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). BMJ learning courses.

COVID-19 Neuro Surveillance – Podcast from the Encephalitis Society. Encephalitis Society. 17th April 2020. 

NeuroBytes: What Neurologists Should Know About COVID-19. American Academy of Neurology. 15th April 2020.

COVID-19 AND NEUROLOGY – PODCAST from the Encephalitis Society. Encephalitis Society. 14th April 2020.

Frontline Report: COVID-19 & Impact on Neurology Unit at Reggio Emilia Hospital. Valzania et al. 31st March 2020.

Coronavirus: many patients reporting neurological symptoms. Rossman J. The Conversation. 24th April 2020.

Other organisation's COVID-19 neurology websites

American Academy of Neurology. COVID-19 Neurology Resource Center.

European Academy of Neurology. EANcore Covid-19.

World Federation of Neurology. COVID-19 and World Neurology.

UK Professional Societies. Coronerve.

Neurological disorders associated with other coronaviruses

Neurological Complications of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus: A Report of Two CasesAlgahtani H, et al. Case reports in neurological medicine. 2016.

Severe neurologic syndrome associated with Middle East respiratory syndrome corona virus (MERS‑CoV). Arabi YM, et al. Infection. 2015;43(4):495-501.

Neurological Complications during Treatment of Middle East Respiratory SyndromeKim JE, et al. Journal of Clinical Neurology. 2017;13(3):227-33.

Detection of SARS Coronavirus RNA in the Cerebrospinal Fluid of a Patient with Severe Acute Respiratory SyndromeHung EC, et al. Clinical Chemistry. 2003;49(12):2108-9.

Possible Central Nervous System Infection by SARS Coronavirus. Lau KK, et al. Emerging infectious diseases. 2004;10(2):342.

Coronavirus Infections in the Central Nervous System and Respiratory Tract Show Distinct Features in Hospitalized Children. Li Y, et al. Intervirology. 2016;59(3):163-9.

Human Coronavirus OC43 Associated with Fatal Encephalitis. Morfopoulou S, et al. New England Journal of Medicine. 2016;375(5):497-8.

Transolfactory neuroinvasion by viruses threatens the human brain. Mori I. Acta Virol. 2015;59(04):338-49.

Neuromuscular Disorders in Severe Acute Respiratory SyndromeTsai LK, et al. Archives of neurology. 2004;61(11):1669-73.

Detection of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus in the Brain: Potential Role of the Chemokine Mig in Pathogenesis. Xu J, et al. Clinical infectious diseases. 2005;41(8):1089-96.

Detection of Coronavirus in the Central Nervous System of a Child with Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis. Yeh EA, et al. Pediatrics. 2004;113(1):e73-6.

Neurological disorders associated with other respiratory viruses

Central nervous system alterations caused by infection with the human respiratory syncytial virusBohmwald K, et al. Reviews in medical virology. 2014;24(6):407-19.

A Population-Based Study of Neurologic Manifestations of Severe Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 in CaliforniaGlaser CA, et al. Clinical infectious diseases. 2012;55(4):514-20.

Neurological Manifestations of Influenza Infection in Children and Adults: Results of a National British Surveillance Study. Goenka A, et al. Clinical infectious diseases. 2014;58(6):775-84.

Cerebrospinal Fluid Findings in an Adult with Human Metapneumovirus– Associated Encephalitis. Jeannet N, et al. Emerging infectious diseases. 2017;23(2):370.

Human Metapneumovirus in the Cerebrospinal Fluid of a Patient With Acute EncephalitisFernández IS, et al. Archives of neurology. 2012;69(5):649-52.